Acute inflammation

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What is inflammation?
• Complex reaction to injurious agents such as microbes and damaged, usually necrotic, cells that consists of vascular responses, migration and activation of leukocytes, and systemic reactions.
• Cell injury → Inflammation → Repair
• Most important feature →
- vascular response → extracellular accumulation of fluid & blood leukocytes
• Purpose = mainly protective but also harmful (like chronic Infl. Diseases)
• Main components
- Vascular events
- Cellular events
• Divided into
- Acute infl
- Chronic infl.
• Mediators of both acute & Chronic infl
- Mainly chemical factors

What is Acute Inflammation?
• Alterations in vascular caliber results in increase in blood flow
• Structural changes in the microvasculature
• Emigration of the leukocytes
• Pus
- Purulent inflammatory exudate
- Rich in leukocytes (Neutrophils), cellular debris, microbes
• Edema
- Excess of fluid in the interstitial or serous cavities
- Exudate or Transudate
• Features
- Minutes to hours
- Extra – vasation of Cells (Neutrophils)
• Termination of inflammation
- Removal of offending agent
- Exhaustion of secreted mediators
- Anti-inflammatory mechanisms

Acute Inflammation – Stimuli & Reactions
• Stimuli produce Acute inflammatory reaction
- Infections and microbial toxins
- Trauma (blunt and penetrating)
- Physical and chemical agents(thermal injury, irradiation)
- Tissue necrosis (any cause)
- Foreign bodies (dirt, sutures)
- Immune reactions (hypersensitivity reactions)
• Vascular Reactions
- Changes in Vascular Flow and Caliber
- vasoconstriction of arterioles followed by vasodilatation → opening of new capillary beds result in increased blood flow (Heat, Redness)
- Mediated by Histamine, nitric oxide – on vascular SMC
• Increased permeability of the microvasculature lead to
- Exudation of protein-rich fluid into the extra vascular tissues (edema)→red cell stasis & Neutrophil collection along the vascular endothelium

Acute inflammation Content:
1. What is inflammation?
2. What is Acute Inflammation?
3. Acute Inflammation – Stimuli & Reactions
4. Inflammation – components
5. Exudation aided by Endothelial cell contraction and Vasodilatation
6. Neutrophil collection along the vascular endothelium
7. And more.

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